Mosin Nagant Models and Types: The Full Breakdown [2019]

The Mosin Nagant is one of the most widely-produced rifles in modern human history. This rifle has been used for more than a century now. Obviously, the original model has undergone a lot of changes and customizations.

Here we’ll take a look at the journey of this firearm from the simple M1891 to its latest models.

You’ll also learn about some features that differentiate various models of the Mosin Nagant.

Comparison Chart of the Best Mosin Nagant Models

PRODUCT DETAILS
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Century Arms M91/30

  • Mostly Original Parts Made from Solid Wood.
  • 26 Inch Barrel and Impeccable Safety Mechanism.
  • Mosin Nagant 1891 - Model Manufactured in 1930.
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Russian State Factories 44 Carbine

  • Accepts a Bayonet With an Apt Groove.
  • Manufactured in 1944 During the Peak of WWII.
  • One of the Most Collectible Versions of the Mosin Nagant Series.
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Century Arms Mosin Nagant M91/59

  • Comes Complete With a Sling.
  • Mosin Nagant M91/59 Version.
  • Matching Serial Numbers and Very Good Condition.
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The Mosin Nagant: A Gun Made for Russia

Tough and brutal. These words describe Russian weather and Russian weapons. The weapon we're looking at here is no exception. Manufactured through a joint collaborative design by Capt. Sergei Mosin and Leon Nagant, this rifle was a big upgrade for the Russian Army. After facing a humiliating defeat at the hands of the Turks in the Russo-Ottoman War, the Russians began looking for a modern, semi-auto and durable alternative for their single-shot Berdan Rifles. This problem got an answer with the adoption of Mosin Nagant rifles in the Russian Army in 1891.

The rifle measures 48.5”,  weighs 4 kg and fires a 7.62 x 54mm round (variable for different models). It has an effective range of approximately 800+ meters (with sights). This rifle was prominently used in World War I, the Russian Civil War, the Winter War (with Finland) and World War II. It performed exceptionally well in these theaters and is still used in the modern day.

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The current use by professional armies is quite limited. But a few countries still use it for their military, like Iran, Iraq, Egypt, Afghanistan, and Finland. Just because it’s not widely used for military purposes, it still gets a good amount of work. The rifle is still used for hunting in the US, Russia, and several European countries. These guns are prominently used by the Soviet-bloc countries, which gained weapons and warfare technology from Russia. The largest military use of this gun outside the Russian Army came with the Finnish Army.

During the Winter War of 1939-40 when Finland declared independence from Russia and pushed the Soviet armies out of their borders, the Finnish army had no infrastructure and weapons. Since they had been fighting alongside the Russian army for quite some time, they were familiar with using the Mosin Nagant. This encouraged them to use the captured ordnance stocks as their primary military combat rifle. The Finnish army made numerous modifications to the gun and use it even today.

These rifles were later manufactured in European countries and even China. More than 37 million Mosin Nagant rifles exist today. Here you’ll learn how to differentiate one model from another.

The Major Russian Variants of the Mosin Nagant

The Mosin Nagant was primarily manufactured and used by the Russian Army. Since the rifle has seen more than a century of service, it saw changes from time to time to keep up with the times. Here are some of the major Russian variants of this rifle.

russia is the original developer of the mosin nagant rifle

M91 (Model 1891)

The "original" version of the gun is the M91 or M1891. This is the original design submitted by Capt. Sergei Mosin. However, it uses a feed system created by Leon Nagant. This rifle was 51 ½ inches long and was manufactured from 1893 - 1925. It featured a hex receiver and a curved rear sight with adjustment markings. The barrel had a blade front sight on top of it. These are the oldest versions available on the market. It was manufactured in Russian (Tula, Izhevsk, Sestroryetsk), American (New England Westinghouse, Remington) and French (Chatellerault) ordnance factories.

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Dragoon/Cossack

The Dragoon model was for the Dragoons (mounted infantry) of the Russian Army. The rifle was 48 ½ inches in length - a bit shorter and lighter than the original model 1891. This made it easier to handle on horseback.

Mosin-Nagant_M1891_Dragoon_

The Cossack rifles were the same as Dragoon rifles. There were for the Cossack horsemen of the Russian Army. The only difference between dragoon and Cossack rifles was the bayonet. The Dragoon rifles were issued with a bayonet, but the Cossack’s were not.

M91/30

The Dragoon version was modified in 1930 to create the new M91/30 model of the Mosin Nagant. The rifle was 48 ½ inches long and featured a flat rear sight, a front globe sight and a split barrel band. The rifle was originally made with a hex receiver. The hex receivers were replaced by round ones in 1935-36. The M91/30 rifles were manufactured only at the Tula and Izhevsk arsenals of the Russian government.

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M38 (carbine)

The M38 version was adopted in 1938 by the Russian army. Production began in 1939. Intended to be used by the rear echelon of troops, the rifle was not designed to accept a bayonet.

The M38 is 40 inches long. The Tula and Izhevsk arsenals manufactured it from 1939-45. The rifle featured a short rear sight with leaf and a narrow front globe sight base. The M38’s used recycled receivers, both hex and round. Due to their limited production numbers, these rifles are highly sought after by collectors.

mosin nagant m38

M44 (carbine)

Designed to replace the M38 version of the Mosin Nagant, the M44 officially came out in 1944. It continued in production until 1948. This model was manufactured from 1943-48 at Izhevsk and only in 1944 at the Tula arsenal. The rifle measures 40 ½ inches in length and features a side-folding bayonet with a groove for it in the right side of the stock. The bayonet was the only actual upgrade to the M38 that distinguishes the M44 model.

M44_Mosin

M91/59

The M91/59 was the modification of the 91/30 and amounted to a change of size. The rifle is 40 ½ inches long - a full 8 inches less than its predecessor. The rifle features a long rear sight with the numbers partially ground off to reflect its reduced range. All graduations above 10 are milled off the leaf. These rifles were manufactured from 1959 to an unknown date. They were created by ‘cutting down’ the M91/30’s from Tula and Izhevsk arsenals.

Mosin_Nagant_Model_1959_Carbine

M91/38

The M91/38 is a cut-down version of the original M91. This upgrade was performed in Czechoslovakia where the Czech markings can be found on the receiver and the barrel shank. It was not intended to use a bayonet. In fact, it won’t even accept one because of its heavier front sight base.

Obrez

The Russian word Obrez means "cut-down" or "sawed-off". The name itself tells all we need to know about this “model“ of the Mosin Nagant. This sawed-off version of the Mosin Nagant had no sights, but was highly dangerous both for the shooter and the target.

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For Russians who wanted a concealed weapon with the power of a 7.62, an Obrez was the first choice. A large number of Obrez guns were manufactured in Russia (some in the US as well). The Obrez model saw service in the Russian Civil war, and lacked purpose after it was over. However, they are still a collectible piece of history.

Finnish Models

The Finnish army began using the guns left behind by their Russian occupiers as their primary combat rifle after the Winter War of 1939-40. The Finns had captured Russian ordinances and huge ammo dumps with a lot of these firearms. The best chance of strengthening their army was to use already-held arms. The Finns probably made the highest number of upgrades to the Mosin Nagant.

coat of arms of finland, one of the developers of the mosin nagant

M91rv

The M91rv was simply a Model 1891 dragoon rifle captured from the Russians, with just one modification. This was a sling slot based upon the German Karabiner 98a. Some versions also retained the original M91 sling slot. These rifles were originally meant for the cavalry divisions, just like the dragoon version.

M24

The Model 24 or the Model 1891/24 was the first large-scale upgrade of the Mosin Nagant by the Finns, for the Civil Guard. The major upgrade was the barrel of these rifles. The barrels were ordered from the Swiss Manufacturers SIG and the German firm Bohler-Stahl. The barrels were manufactured in two different versions, straight and stepped (all Bohler-Stahl barrels were stepped).

m24carbine_000

The manufacturers mark is on the chamber or the stock. The receiver also features a Civil Guard logo. The rifle got the nickname Lotta-Svard after the famous Lotta-Svard women's volunteer organization which helped raise funds for the orders.

M27 and M27rv

Manufactured from 1927-40, the M27 was the first fully-functional customized model of the M91 used by the Finnish Army. The rifle featured a new heavy barrel. The front sight had a globe guard. The bolt and the receiver were modified.

Mosin_Nagant_M27rv

The M27rv was the mounted forces version of the M27 rifle, with a cut-down stock to reduce the length of the rifle to a carabine. A total of only 2217 M27rv rifles were manufactured and deployed with the most elite cavalry units of the Finnish army. Less than 300 of these rifles exist today, making it one of the most rare, collectible firearm.

M28 and M28-30

The M28 is an upgraded version of the M27 model. The primary difference is a change in the barrel band. On the M28 the barrel band is a single piece, compared to the hinged band in M27. It also features an open front nose cap on the front barrel band.

The barrels of these rifles were manufactured by SIG, SAKO and Tikkakoski. The markings can be seen on the rifle.

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The M28-30 (1934-40) is an advanced version of the M28. The main features are the flat rear sight design, and the ½ inch gap from muzzle to the front sight. The trigger was improved by adding a coil spring. There is also a metal sleeve in the fore-end of the hand guard to reduce barrel harmonics.

The deadliest sniper of all time, Simo Hayha, used a M28-30 rifle (S.no: 60974).

simo hayha

M39

The M39 was adopted to standardize Mosin Nagant rifle production. These rifles were based on the design of the M28-30 with slight alterations like the semi-pistol grip and the 1-inch gap of the foresight from the muzzle. These rifles weren’t ready for the Winter War, but were used largely in the Continuation war. It was nicknamed “Ukko-Pekka” after the former Finnish president Pehr Evind Svinhufvud.

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M30

These rifles were manufactured from 1943-44 by Tikkakoski in large numbers. They featured newly-manufactured barrels with parts salvaged from captured Mosin Nagant rifles from the Winter and Continuation wars. These rifles have a flat rear sight and a stacked front blade sight. The receiver bears a mark from its manufacturer Tikkakoski.


Other Versions

Apart from the above-mentioned models, the Finns experimented with some other variations of the rifle as well. The M/56 was an experimental 7.62x39mm version of the Mosin Nagant. The M/28-57 was a biathlon 7.62x54mm version.

Tkiv 85

The M/28-76 was modified from M/28-30 and M/39 rifles and were primarily used for marksmanship and training. The most modern version of the Mosin is the 7.62 Tkiv 85 Sniper rifle. It has an original  receiver and has been upgraded to meet modern standards of a good sniper rifle.

How Accurate is a Mosin Nagant?

Mosin Nagant has been the primary service and sniper rifle of the Soviet (and many other) military forces for quite a long time. But if you plan on buying a Mosin Nagant today, you’ll have to consider factors such as the condition of the rifle, sights, and the type of ammo you are using. A well maintained Mosin can shoot 2-2.5 inch groups at 100 yards, whereas a crappy one with lousy ammo can spray 6-8 inch groups over a 100 yards. Not to mention the fliers anyway.

Quick Take - The Best Mosin Nagant Models

These are our recommendations for the best Mosin Nagant models:

  1. Century Arms M91/30
  2. Russian State Factories 44 Carbine
  3. Century Arms Mosin Nagant M91/59

Review of the Best Mosin Nagant Models

Let's take a look at the best versions of the Mosin Nagant available on the market today.

Pros

  • Pre-Tapped Stock For Accepting Slings
  • Works Well and Accurate For an Old Gun
  • Pretty Good Condition Considering Its Age
  • Good Hunting Rifle With a Powerful Caliber
  • Cheap Ammunition, Doesn’t Hurt Your Wallet
  • U-Notch Adjustable Rear Sight With Calibrations Up to 2000 Meters

Cons

  • A Bit Heavy (8.2 Pounds)
  • Somewhat Long To Be Fit in Confined Spaces

What Recent Buyers Report

The features loved by most buyers is its accuracy, cheap ammunition, aesthetics, price, and its contribution to history. The rifle is in exceptionally good condition and shoots very well. Plus, the price of the rifle offers the best value, considering it is a historic and legendary rifle. 

Why it Stands Out to Us 

The rifle is in excellent condition, considering the fact that it is almost 90 years old. This gun is quite durable. Plus, it has been pre-drilled for sling mounts and serviced really well for optimal performance. The long barrel is apt for accuracy and the gun is quite fun to shoot. 

Who Will Use This Most 

It is an absolutely perfect rifle for casual shooters and militaria collectors. Since the ammunition is exceptionally cheap, it can be used for plinking and practice. Additionally, the powerful .311 round is also ideal for hunting big and small game. 

Bottom Line

The M91/30 is probably the oldest line of Mosin Nagant rifles easily available for sale today. This gun is over 90 years old, and still shoots quite accurately. However, you must consider using high quality ammunition for better precision. 

Pros

  • Includes the Side Folding Bayonet
  • Compact Compared To Its Predecessors
  • Folding Rear Sight and Hooded Front Sight
  • Over 60 Years Old But in Fairly Good Condition
  • Smooth Wood Stock With Sling Mounting Points
  • 20-Inch Barrel For Good Maneuverability and Accuracy

Cons

  • Bolt Should Be Modified For Using Optics
  • Lighter Than the 91/30 But Still Weighs 8.7lbs

What Recent Buyers Report 

The M44 is mostly used as a hunting weapon because of its sheer power, accuracy, and relatively cheap ammunition. The rifle packs the power of the Mosin Nagant into a more compact package compared to other variants. Plus, the bayonet does have some benefits. However, some users do complain about the cumbersome safety of the weapon.

Why it Stands Out to Us 

The M44 is a compact rifle compared to the other variants in this series. This M44 is in extremely good condition and comes with a bayonet attached to it. It is in a ready-to-fire state and doesn’t require much maintenance. Plus, the 20-inch barrel is quite a good length for both accuracy and maneuverability. 

Who Will Use This Most 

This piece is ideal for hunting and practice. It can also be used for self-defense (since it was designed for Urban Combat by the Soviets) but that’s a rare example because of modern firearms. The rifle is widely used for hunting, as it can successfully bring down any game you can find in North America. Additionally, the super cheap ammo also makes it a good plinking rifle. 

Bottom Line

The M44 is quite a hefty rifle compared to modern firearms. It was designed for close-quarter combat, but it is best used for hunting. The rifle is positively accurate at 100 yards for a rifle of this caliber, size, and age.

Pros

  • Weighs Only 7.5 lbs 
  • Includes a Cleaning Rod and Sling
  • Very Good Refurbished Condition
  • 20.25 Inch Barrel With Reblued Bore
  • One Of the Most Accurate and Widely Used Mosin Nagant Model
  • Stamped Receiver With Serial Numbers and Manufacturing Date (1943)

Cons

  • Limited Options For Modifications 
  • Difficulty in Mounting An Optic Scope
  • Operating Safety Knob Can Be Difficult At Times
What Recent Buyers Report

The M91/59 is the cut-down version of the M91/30. The numbers on the rear sight have been abraded-off to reflect its reduced "carbine" range. The rifle is on par in terms of accuracy with most rifles of its era. The rifle is quite fun to shoot and is complete and collective in all respects for a Mosin Nagant. 

Why it Stands Out to Us 

The rifle has matching serial numbers which are a testament to its authenticity. Plus, the rifle comes complete with a sling and cleaning rod. Additionally, the bore has been reblued and the rifle has been refurbished which offers a good value for money. The M91/59 is probably the most accurate rifles of the Mosin lineage. 

Who Will Use This Most 

The rifle is best for hunting and practice. Due to its exceptional accuracy, the rifle can be used to hunt big game from quite a distance. Since the ammo is very cheap, and the gun is accurate, one can use it to sharpen their shooting skills. It can also be used as a truck gun or a home defense weapon. But such uses are very rare and can only occur in a hasty situation. 

Bottom Line

This M91/59 is in extremely good condition for a rifle almost 90 years old. The extra sling saves you some money and hassle of searching for an apt sling. It also makes the rifle easy to carry and offers stability while shooting. 

Conclusion

The Mosin Nagant has an extensive service record. A lot of variations and upgrades to the original design have resulted in numerous models of this rifle. Apart from the above mentioned models, there are other versions of the rifle.

Among the models produced are Estonian, Polish, Hungarian, Romanian, Czech, Bulgarian, and even Chinese (T53) versions. Each model has its specific qualities and place in history. This long-serving rifle has earned its place in the history books and in the collector’s case.

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